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为什么手术室里的医生和护士穿绿色衣服呢?

手术服曾经是白色,因为看起来会给人一种非常干净的感觉,在二十世纪初,一个有名的医生撰文分析了手术面临的一些问题,他提出应该把手术室里的衣服从白色换成绿色,这样对外科医生的眼睛最好。

虽然不能确定是否因为他的影响力才造成了随后绿色手术服的流行,但从色彩分析的角度来说,他的观点是对的,绿色可能更适合于帮助医生操作手术,因为绿色是红色的相对色。

Scrubs used to be white—the color of cleanliness. Then in the early twentieth century, one influential doctor switched to green because he thought it would be easier on a surgeon’s eyes.

Although it is hard to confirm whether green scrubs became popular for this reason, green may be especially well-suited to help doctors see better in the operating room because it is the opposite of red on the color wheel.

绿色可以更好帮助医生的原因有两个。首先,看蓝色或绿色可以刷新医生的视觉中的红色感应,包括手术中看到病人血淋淋的内脏。如果一个外科医生长时间盯着红色和粉色的东西,他的大脑在分辨颜色时会出现视觉疲劳,视物神经会变麻木。

如果红色信号在大脑中消失,会影响医生分辨人体的细节之处。而根据加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的视觉心理学教授约翰·沃纳研究发现:不时看绿色的东西可以让人的眼睛对红色的变化变敏感。

Green could help physicians see better for two reasons. First, looking at blue or green can refresh a doctor’s vision of red things, including the bloody innards of a patient during surgery. The brain interprets colors relative to each other. If a surgeon stares at something that’s red and pink, he becomes desensitized to it.

The red signal in the brain actually fades, which could make it harder to see the nuances of the human body. Looking at something green from time to time can keep someone’s eyes more sensitive to variations in red, according to John Werner, a psychologist who studies vision at the University of California, Davis.

另外一个原因是,当医生长时间盯看鲜红或粉色的器官时,因大脑产生疲劳,从而对红色产生「模糊」的视觉,而后再去看白色的东西时,比如说一个外科手术或麻醉医生的雪白的衣服,他会发现在那上面出现了呈绿色的一片阴影,这就是所谓的“绿色幽灵”。

Second, such deep focus on red, red, red can lead to distracting green illusions on white surfaces. These funky green ghosts could appear if a doctor shifts his gaze from reddish body tissue to something white, like a surgical drape or an anesthesiologist’s alabaster outfit.

A green illusion of the patient’s red insides may appear on the white background. (You can try out this “after effect” illusion yourself.) The distracting image would follow the surgeon’s gaze wherever he looks, similar to the floating spots we see after a camera flash.

这种现象的发生是因为白光里包含了所有的颜色,包括红色和绿色。但是由于视觉疲劳,人脑中主管红色的信道已经罢工,与之相对的绿色信道因此不会因互补而被抵消掉。

然而,根据意大利帕多瓦大学保罗.布雷森的视觉错觉研究显示:如果医生用看蓝色或者绿色代替白色的物品,那这些让人烦恼的”绿色幽灵“将会被中和,从而不再形成困扰。

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